The reason why the Union and Progress Party entered World War I was this nationalist Turan ideal. It was the main desire to return to a great empire again, this time under the name of Turkism. This was the reason why they dragged millions of young people to death in the Allahu Akbar mountains and in the Arabian deserts. With the Armenian Genocide of 1915, they showed how they would turn the lands they seized into “Turkish” lands. But these dreams ended with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
The struggle between 1919 and 1923 against British hegemony is actually related to the mission of imperialism.
Contrary to the claims, the emergence of the Turkish state did not occur following a victorious war won against imperialism but was in fact a project of the imperialists designed to suit their interests. Within the framework of the developing Kurdish-Turkish alliance, the possibility of forming a democratic republic is not impossible. However, the reality that the Turkish state is a genocidal state which emerged as a result of the division of Kurdistan into four parts, and that it was formed in accordance with the approval and interests of the imperialist powers cannot be overlooked.
It should be noted that during the 20th century, Turkish rulers never gave up their passion to expand their sovereignty, despite the gamble they lost in the First World War.
The National Pact (Misak-i Milli) resolution of the last Ottoman parliament, which was unstructured, was positive in the sense that it pointed to the democratic alliance of the Kurdish and Turkish people on a common homeland. Of course, it would have been difficult for an undivided Kurdistan to be the target of genocide attacks by Turkish fascism. So first, with the Ankara treaty (1921) signed with France, the Rojava part of Kurdistan was parted and the National Pact conceded. Then, with Lausanne (1923) and this time with the Ankara Agreement (1926) with England, Kurdistan was divided into four parts.
As a matter of fact, the Union and Progress continued by wanting to turn Northern Kurdistan into Turkish lands by carrying out a genocide against the Kurds. Since the soils of northern Kurdistan remained under Turkish rule, homogenization was to have been done at this scale. In this way, occupation and colonialism penetrated the genes of the Turkish Republic in the person of the status quo of Northern Kurdistan.
Lausanne and the National Pact
It is necessary to point out the different dimensions of the Lausanne Treaty and the National Pact, as these agreements are viewed negatively by Turkish fascists as well as the Kurdish population.
It is indisputable that the Treaty of Lausanne is a treaty that partitions Kurdistan into a fragmented colony, it is a text that disregards the will of the peoples. In this sense, it is natural for it to be viewed negatively by the people of Kurdistan. However, a significant segment of Turkish fascists also views this treaty negatively, but for different reasons.
Lausanne is a disappointment for Turkish nationalists. This is because they think they are stuck in a smaller geography than they deserved. Their problem is not the disintegration of a people’s country which was thousands of years old, but the shrinkage of an area they feel entitled to as their own state. This area is not limited to Kurdistan.
One of the founding fathers of Turkish nationalism, Dr. Riza Nur, wrote a book in 1967 explaining the process surrounding the Lausanne Treaty and has related assessments about Mustafa Kemal and İnönü. The book titled “My life and my memories” is a book which is still banned in Turkey and the uncensored version has never been printed. In his book, Riza Nur claims Ismet Inonu and Mustafa Kemal are responsible for the treaty which reduces Turkish sovereignty.
Lausanne, which white Turkish fascism sees as a great victory, is actually considered a defeat for other fascist movements. In this respect, it can be remembered that fascist Erdogan made statements that belittled this treaty recently. Moreover, the subconscious of all Turkish fascists is to dominate the world, not just to rule a small peninsula.
The important factors that made the current AKP-MHP alliance possible is the White Turkish dreams of expansion. And this common mindset is the reason why all statist powers, including the CHP, give open or closed support to this expansion move.
Likewise, we know that Turkish fascists sometimes brings up the National Pact in reference to their colonial demands. Today they want to occupy and annex other parts of Kurdistan with reference to this. As we pointed out above, if the national pact is updated and shaped by the democratic alliance of the peoples of both countries, such a pact could be meaningful.
Turkish fascism brings the National Pact to the agenda with the logic of realizing its ottoman ambitions with the current state structure. Their intention to use the Turkmens living in this region for their colonial demands regarding Southern Kurdistan clearly shows this.